Research Papers

Social Exclusion as a Recurring Theme in Ahmad Nadeem Qasmi’s Short stories: An Overview-Abid Ali

Table of Contents


Table of Contents:



Literature Review:

Theoretical Framework:

Discussion and Analysis:




In this dissertation, I shall identify the variety of ways in which social exclusion has been conceived. definitions, views of different critics about this theory, social exclusion, application of social exclusion on the main important stories of Pakistani famous writer Ahmed Nadeem Qasmi. Social exclusion as a recurring theme in the short stories of Ahmed Nadeem Qasmi.

Keywords: Social Exclusion, Definitions, Applications, Recurring, Theme


Ahmed Nadeem Kazmi is a well-known Pakistani, bilingual Urdu and English poet, journalist, playwright, and short-story writer. He was born on November 20, 1916, in Anga Khushab, on the subcontinent, and died in 2006. He has written a total of 50 books on various topics such as poetry, magazine criticism, and art. He is the best man in Urdu literature. His poems cause a change in personality. He has won the PRIDE OF PERFORMANCE and SITARA – IMTIAZ awards for his writing. He also worked as a teacher. He was one of the main producers of the “Progressive Writers’ Association”. Qasmi’s writings form an important corpus of the battle of ideas that began soon after the Pakistanis’ birth. poverty which is linked to social exclusion is the main theme and subject matter of his short stories. Especially the shows the problems of the rural people of Pakistan. He shows how the life of rural people of especially Pakistan is difficult. They are deprived of even the necessities of life necessaries of life. Qasmi himself belongs to the poor background that is why he does know the pain of poor excluded people.

Literature Review:

I have selected the following short stories of Ahmed Nadeem Qasmi to apply the social exclusion theory.

  • Safarish
  • God be Praised
  • Kapas Ka Phool
  • Masi Gul Bano
  • Baba Noor

Looking at Safarish from the perspective of exclusion from society, it can be said that Qasmi has highlighted the stories of the poorest people in the community. In the sense of social exclusion, poverty should be lived only in poor communities and other poor people, without enjoying social equality, and seeing the best people in the best places. The story of “Safarish” is about a poor Tanga traveller “Feeka”. His father lost his eye using an unusual type of colliery. Throughout this story Qasmi shows how poor people are affected in life and how poor people do not have easy access to their basic health needs, for example, even a health-related problem cannot be solved without the recommendation or recommendation of the rich. FIGA & # 39; s father has an eye problem. For this purpose, he needed praise from someone who helped examine his father’s eye. Because her appearance was so late, no one was willing to give her much treatment and place her in the hospital ward. In the case of Feeka, he wanted to show how poor people are excluded from society so that rich-poor people can welcome their patients to the hospital without being praised. The poor in society are mistreated in society.

Feeka found a person of his reference of a regular passenger of his tanga who is a friend of Dr. Jabbar in Meo-hospital. Feeka went to the home of this passenger many times for commendation and he always said that he will do his work and will call Dr. Jabbar but he can’t do this because of his busy routine.

With this story, we come to know how poor people are helpless for the completion of their tasks. They always need people superior to them. They cannot solve their issues by themselves due to their poverty. Some educated rich people claim for their courtesy and generosity only by using words. They are selfish. They even have time for the sympathy of the poor. In society, such poor people have no place. They are socially excluded from society. They are always rejected in society. The writer wants to show the condition of poor people of society how they have to make a struggle to solve their problems in their life. The other point Qasmi made in this story is that about so-called generous educated people. They claim that they are helpful for the poor but they are only by using kind words. In reality, they are selfish they even have no time for the sympathy of the poor.

“God be praised” is another short story of Ahmad Nadeem Qasmi.” God is Praised” is one of the masterpieces of Ahmad Nadeem Qasmi. Pleasures and Problems, especially the problems of poor of country life and the village life have been Qasmi’ s particular topics of discussion. The narration of the story proves Qasmi’s closer observation. Maulvi Abdul is the central character of this story, “God is praised”. How life is difficult one can well be imagined after going through this story. Maulvi Abdul propagated children one after another without missing even a single chance and then got in the net of endless problems. It is a very painful situation. Despite adverse circumstances, the only thing that saved Abdul of destruction is his firm faith in Allah. Maulvi Abdul though that the marriage of the eldest daughter would lessen his burden but soon after the marriage of the first daughter he got worried about the rest two daughters, that is why it is said pleasure is not at home. Gloom always remains with the man. Perhaps man will have eternal peace after death. The main theme of this story is social exclusion. Maulvi Abul is a very poor person and he is imam Masjid as well. He faces difficulty in the fulfillment of necessities of life. The people gave him the Nazrana in that way could able to fulfill the necessities of life. The other issue with maulvi is the marriages of his daughters. Qasmi shows that how people like Maulvi Abul face the problems in their life. Society excludes such people, even that they find difficulty for the proper match for their children, and when they are girls condition becomes more painful. Due to this, all painful situations Maulvi Abul, prayers became intense and prolonged. During Ramadan, he led the nightly Tarawih prayers as usual. But the same Maulvi Abul who never had made a single mistake began straying from one Surah of the Holy Quran to another. Sometimes, unconsciously, he repeated the same chapter twice in the same part of prayer.

Once when District Board Member Chaudhry Fateh Abba rebuked him, Maulvi Abul left us to complain to him; He has Chaudhry Sahib boys. If you have blessed a daughter, you will understand why I doubled the chapter of the Bible. Maulvi’s comments show how he was expelled from the community.

Poor people like Maulvi Abul can’t play a bad game with their daughter because they don’t have the resources and the sad thing in society is that people don’t give much to religious people like Maulvi Abul.

Chaudhry Fateh gave the father the task of finding the right match for his daughter, but the problem is that everyone in the community knows Maulvi Abul well. Chaudhry Fateh Dada tried to negotiate with a few adults, but they all backed away as the bees suddenly appeared in a flower bed. Concept of a broadcasting organization that falls under the category of social exclusion. It creates different types of social exclusions across gender, religion, race, and class. Policymakers and researchers interested in inclusive and developmental issues should seek additional information to gain a deeper understanding of how these social inequalities are created in access to labor markets, basic services, and rights. In this regard, development workers, researchers, and community groups in South Asia can gain much by learning from each other’s experiences in trying to formulate all-inclusive social development policies that address the root causes of poverty and social discrimination.

In this short story, Maulvi Abul is a believer, people respect them but are not ready to give them their rights. Even such individuals find it difficult to get the right balance for their children through their marriage. A similar case in Maulvi Abul is that it is very difficult to match the resemblance with his daughters. Whenever Sadri Fateh tried to negotiate with the elders the bees suddenly came back as if they had appeared in a flower bed. Therefore, we conclude that society excludes such people from society.

” Masi Gul Bano” is another short story of Qasmi that depicts the theme of social exclusion. This story of a woman who is socially excluded in society. The people are having string views about her they do not let their girls sit with her because they think that she is not well. Some evil sprites are having control over her. And if their girls will sit with her, they will also be affected by them. Masi Gul Bano has to spend all her life alone. Through this short story, Qasmi shows one of the big issues of society. Sometimes due to the false believes of the people of society become problematic for the other. Masi Gul Bano is facing such kind of problem; actually, she is not having the issue that people are thinking about her. Society excludes Masi Gul Bano from her basic rights that she should be given in her life by society. She has to spend her life alone.

Baba Noor is another beautiful short story of Ahmed Nadeem Qasmi. Baba Noor is the main character of this short story. He is an old man. He seems to be a serious and responsible person. At the beginning of the short story, we see Baba Noor is going to the post office. Many people ask Baba Noor where he is going whether they know that he is going to the post office. Few of them made fun of him that Baba Noor is going to the post office daily for ten years. Everyone knows very well that baba is going to the post office to receive the letter of his son who died in Burma in war. War is very destructive, even it is fought for some noble cause. War brings extreme violence. people lose their loved ones as in the story Baba Noor lost his son. So, we can say that war causes poverty and social exclusion in society. This is only one story many others were affected by the war. And thy become socially excluded.

Major works

He has written many books on short stories. Some of them are Gopal, Sannata, Gandasa, Aalaan, Masi Gul Bano, Begum Kibilli, Safarish, Baba Noor, Kafan Daf an, Bain, Gul Rukh, Wahshi, Mukhbir, and Kaps Ka Phool.

Social exclusion is a recurring theme in the short stories of Ahmed Nadeem   Qasmi. He raises the issues of society through his short stories especially the poor people of villages that are socially excluded in society. They are not given access to their rights.

Social Exclusion

The concept of isolation was introduced in France in the 1970s and then worldwide in 1996 after the Social Conference. Social exclusion is the process by which an individual or group of individuals is excluded from full or partial participation in society in which they live. These include the denial of resources, rights, goods and services, and the failure to participate in the normal relationships and activities enjoyed by most people in the socio-economic, cultural, or political community. Who seems to deviate in any way from the ideology or can any race be subjected to cold or subtle forms of social exclusion, focusing on the process of creating social exclusion evil, and poverty? The main symptoms of social exclusion are poor health, low income, income, dependency, limited Dutch language ability, and living in a single-parent home. What happens when people or places are affected by connected issues such as unemployment, poor skills, low income, poor housing, high crime rates, poor health, and family.

Public Release Publication

What is social exclusion and how does it differ from concepts such as poverty and evil? Early and perhaps the most important theorists who left society emphasized their diversity. This discussion is concerned not only with the lack of resources, but also with issues such as inadequacy, public participation, lack of social and educational funding, inadequate access to services, and inefficiency. In other words, the notion of exclusion from society seeks to capture the seriousness of powerlessness in today’s society. Short-term for what happens when people or places are affected by related issues such as unemployment, poor skills, low income, poor housing, high crime rates, poor health, poverty, and family breakdown.

This idea can be applied to the short stories of Ahmed Nadeem Kazmi. One of the most important and important themes in Ahmed Nadeem Kazmi’s short stories is the exclusion of the public. He painted a true picture of the rural culture of Pakistan.

Theoretical Background      

Amartya Sen (2000) pointed out that the historical roots of the notion of social exclusion go back to Aristotle. However, for this review, modern interest in the concept began to be explored in 1974, when Rene Lenoir, the country’s Secretary of Social Affairs of the French Colist government, became known. Social cohesion is an important political component in France. Its origins can be seen in the light of the eighteenth century, which emphasizes the unity and concept of the state as the institution of democracy. The emergence of the concept of social exclusion in France in the 1970s was associated with the growth of the state and the difficulty in approaching it. According to Robert Castell of French society, as in most European societies, he solved the social problem by shifting from education in the mid-19th century to contract and in the 20th century from model to contract. It occurs in the context of continuously fully working for communities when wage relations are the basis for the expansion of social nationalism. When Lenoir spoke of “non-discrimination,” he was referring to the reduction of their rights as groups of people and citizens who could not find a place in wage communications.

The concept of exemption has become very common in the West. Europe in the last half of the 20th century. Although not inferior to the rest of the world, it has spread from the northern hemisphere to the south since the early 1990s. The roots of history can be traced back to Aristotle, when the modern concept of isolation developed in France in the 1970s, and the late 1960s was linked to domestic growth unrest and job growth and the apparent decline of social cohesion in the social and economic environment. Inequality. From France, its use spread to EU companies, decentralizing the talk of poverty. It was enthusiastically adopted by the newly elected UK-based Labour government in the late 1990s, and the International Labour Organization was at the forefront of advancing this idea in economically developed countries. Part of the growing popularity of the concept of social exclusion is provided by its political appeal. It is said to be less of a threat than poverty and its semantic flexibility is being accepted by various political parties. Its appearance is the same

It has been associated with neo-liberal ideas and the rise of autonomy since the 1970s. Moreover, the notion of social exclusion may be due in part to its popularity as part of the belief that it gives the first impression. Social exclusion is a complex and varied process. These include the lack of denial of resources, rights, goods, and services, and the inability to participate in the normal relationships and activities that most people in the community enjoy, even in the economic, social, cultural, or political spheres. It affects both the quality of life of the people and the equality and integration of society as a whole.

The term “general exemption” is derived from a recent term. General extraction is widely used in Europe and was first used in France in the 1970s, and then became popular around the world after the social conference in 1996. It is used in all subjects including education, social, psychological, political, and economic.

Social exclusion is a process in which people are denied the various rights, opportunities, and services that are often available to members of a different group, and are the basis for social cohesion and human rights awareness in that particular group such as housing, employment, and health care., Social participation, democratic participation, and the appropriate process.

Social exclusion at the individual level excludes the individual from meaningful participation in society. For example, the exclusion of single mothers from the social system before the social change of the 1900s. The modern social system is based on the right to the basic means of being a life social service as a productive community member and compensation for the useful service rendered to the community provided. The contribution of single mothers to society. In general, many women face marginalization. Musa-Mita discusses the Western women’s movement as a direct response to discrimination against white women in society. Women were fired and the work they did at home was not important. Women and men argue that women should participate equally in the public and private sectors and at home. They also focus on labor laws to increase employment availability and see child-rearing as an important occupation. In some areas today, women are still marginalized and hold higher senior positions than men.


There are many donors in the public domain. Key contributors include race, income, employment status, social class, and location.

Anyone who appears to be deviating in any way from the visible practices of the nation may be subject to cold or subtle forms of social exclusion.

Theorists of social exclusion

Rene Lenoir

Rene Lenoir was the Secretary of State for France for public action. He writes a quarter of a century ago. He started using the word to exclude social media. Rene Lenoir is often referred to by this name in the context of social policy, pointing to special insecure needs and misguided individuals. In the 1980s, distractions from the French panel extended the extended use of the word. With rising unemployment, French social scientists are emphasizing the power to reduce sugarcane or human inequality, creating continuous isolation through intermediate measures of risk or danger.

 The concept of social exclusion seems to have a wide range of social and economic issues. Rene Lenoir spoke about excluding the community as the ten most “excluded” people in France. People with mental and physical disabilities, suicides, the elderly, abused children, drug abusers, insurgents, single parents, troubled homes, the poor, social workers, and other injustices. Books following Lenoir’s first edition have already been added to the large list of “public outings”.

Emily Durkheim

Emily Durkheim is a social scientist, best known for her views on social organization. He was born on April 15, 1858, in Ebenezer, France. He is known for his two-pronged approach to St. Propane, collective consciousness, and social reality. He died on November 15, 1917, in Paris, France. His work focused on how traditional and modern societies are formed and function. His views are based on the notion of social reality; Define them as the rules, standards, and structures of society. The concept of social exclusion has been applied to the works of Emily Durkheim. He is a French social scientist. Has officially established the discipline of social education. Karl Marx and Max Weber are often cited as key architects of the modern social sciences.

Discussion and Analysis:

Social exclusion is one of the main themes of Ahmed Nadeem Kazmi. Qasmi belongs to budding writers. Has written about 50 short stories. In his short stories, he shows a clear picture of the poor people, especially in the countryside. He raises the issues of outsiders in the community. People who are not given basic social rights.

As a result of social exclusion, affected individuals or communities are prevented from fully participating in the economic, social, and political life of the communities in which they live. This can lead to protests, demonstrations, or campaigns. Social exclusion is closely related to poverty; Others have questioned whether the notion of exemption increases controversy, especially concerning poverty. It can be said that social exclusion is a broad concept.

Many crimes that separate people and groups from the main social norms and opportunities of society, such as housing, nationality, employment, and adequate living conditions.

It was also emphasized that social exclusion is more focused on the process, not on the state; The process by which a person or thing is published.

Levidas (1998), in his analysis of its use in social policy debates, identifies three issues of general exclusion; Redistribution talk (RED); Sub speech (MUD); And Social Mobilization (SIT) Qasmi’s short stories. The Land Redistribution Rhetoric (RED) is deeply concerned about the poverty found in almost every short story. A comparison of the publication with the national edition demanding the redistribution of power and authority (Leviticus, 1998, p. 7) is also found in his writings; “Safarish” (Short Story by Ahmad Nadeem Qasmi) Establishing Elements of Power and Wealth. Behavior Under Class; (This can be seen in Gandasa) “Criminal, unemployed and irresponsible youth in the community are required to work for paid work as a form of discipline, but (they) – exempt, as a result, moral and cultural.

Some estimates that about 40% of Pakistanis experience significant political, social, and economic exclusions depending on their identity (e.g. religion, ethnicity, language), location, or gender. These various shortcomings prevent these parties from participating in political life, accessing resources, seeking rights, or influencing the organizations that make up their lives. These expulsion processes are carried out by government agencies and are closely linked to the traditional and political power structures of Pakistan.

Exit patterns include regional, ethnic, sectarian, and class identities, which increase the party’s views on injustice. In Baluchistan and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA), for example, complaints about the exclusion of territories have been a major driver of the insurgency. Similarly, ethnic and religious exclusion has sparked violence in Karachi, South Punjab, and other areas. This helps the bosses to maintain their dominance in the country (and also motivates them to resist the many changes that are needed):

High-level isolation further perpetuates high governance and inequality, which is a major cause of instability in Pakistan in a narrow, high-level political environment and a state that does not serve the interests of its people. Although the extraction methods are different in each case, the result is the rejection of the voice of the citizens, the promotion of superior administration, and the expansion of the bells.

My report on the Global Economic Symposium on Pakistan (GES) highlights the problems posed by the world’s top economic competitors. Kazmi raises all sorts of issues that people face, especially in Pakistan.

Some estimates say that about 40% of Pakistanis experience significant political, social, and economic exclusions depending on their identity (e.g. religion, ethnicity, language), their location, or gender. These various shortcomings prevent these parties from participating in political life, accessing resources, seeking rights, or influencing the organizations that make up their lives. These expulsion processes are carried out by government agencies and are closely linked to the traditional and political power structures of Pakistan.

Short-term for what happens when people or places are affected by related issues such as unemployment, poor skills, low income, poor housing, high crime rates, poor health, and family breakdown. Ahmed Nadeem Kazmi, one of the most important directors of the “Progressive Writers’ Association”, wrote about the rural life of the poor and marginalized in Pakistan. Short stories like Safarish, God Be Price, Kapas Ka Pool, MasiGulbano, and Baba Noor are the best examples of MasiGulbano for this type of work. In these short stories, it can be used for general publication. Because social exclusion is directly linked to poverty, these stories are all about poor people. People whose basic human rights have not even been granted. They have to deal with low income, unemployment, poor health, dependency, limited Dutch language, and living in a single-parent family.

 It affects both the quality of life of the people and the equality and integration of society as a whole.

Many forms of poverty have been explored in a variety of ‘within the definition of poverty’ that includes aspects of social exclusion. Definition of ‘general poverty’ adopted by the United Nations declarations of ‘social discrimination and exclusion’ and ‘non-participation in social, social, and cultural decision-making’. Social exclusion factors are part of Downsent’s concept of poverty (see Poverty and Poverty Reduction), as well as the need for the UK’s first breadline and subsequent BSE survey (see Consensus approach) to include social exclusion elements (such as celebrations) for special occasions ‘or’ recreational or leisure activities ‘). Poverty, however, emphasizes the resources and needs of society, while social exclusion precedes the ability of the individual or group to participate in social, economic, political, and cultural life and their relationships with others. While poverty can have a profound effect on some of these social exclusion factors, there are other key factors of social exclusion such as age, disability, race, gender, and employment status.


In Ahmed Nadeem Kazmi’s short stories, it has been decided that exclusion is a continuing theme. Ahmed Nadeem Kazmi is a famous Pakistani writer who has written 50 books on various topics. The short stories in particular show the lives of the poor who were excluded from the rural people and community. Social exclusion is the process by which individuals or groups of people are excluded from full participation in society. Public publishing is used in the short stories of Ahmed Nadeem Kazmi.

Social exclusion focuses on a process that creates injustice and poverty. The main symptoms of social exclusion are poor health, low income, dependency, limited Dutch language ability, and living in a single-parent home.

Social exclusion is directly related to poverty. People who are excluded from society face challenges throughout their lives. Society does not give them their rights in society. Social exclusion is diversified not only concerning lack of resources but also in terms of inadequacy, social participation, lack of social and educational funding, inadequate access to services, and inefficiency. In other words, the notion of exclusion from society seeks to capture the seriousness of powerlessness in today’s society.

In this article, I tried to think deeply about the concept of loneliness, especially in the context of poverty and destitution. Poverty is characterized only by a reduction in income, in which case the introduction of the concept of exemption as part of poverty would greatly expand the scope of poverty analysis. I argued that if this idea is used carefully, much can be gained by using the concept of social exclusion. The use of this method would be useful in differentiating different economic experiences in different parts of Asia.


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About the author: Abid Ali is pursuing his Hons in English language and literature.

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